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Market Update and Model Portfolio Reviews 2/28/2019

For the month of February, domestic large cap equities continued their route higher from a strong January.  In February, large cap domestic equities** were up 3.21% and 11.48% on the year. On March 9, 2019 (a Saturday), the bull market on the S&P 500 turns 10 years old (assuming we don’t fall below 2,344.60 on the index before March 8th.).    At the end of the month Investment grade domestic bonds* returns started to fade to negative territory off -0.06% while still up 1.00% on the year.  All of the benchmarks and models had positive returns over the month and year to date. On February 25 we raised cash by trimming our equity, fixed income and alternative asset allocation exposures in the model portfolios.  Our tactical decision to partially lower our exposures was based on our perception of diminishing diversification benefit as both our portfolio allocations and asset classes we monitor, broadly speaking, had significant positive upside to start the year.  We believe the positive correlations across asset classes will start to breakdown in either part or in whole creating a negative drag on portfolio returns.  Rather than make a short term directional decision on any particular asset class or portfolio allocation we found it best to broadly trim back our exposures to potentially capture a breakdown in the upside correlation we have observed since late December 2018.  The only area we upped our allocation on a relative basis was our Long Yen to Dollar currency exposure.  As of the close of February 25, on average across the model portfolios, we have approximately 17% to cash with 15.5% on the lower side with our Ultra Conservative model to 18.8% to our Ultra Aggressive model.  This marks a new high for our relative allocation to cash across the models. 

 

Due to the partial government shutdown, initial GDP (Gross Domestic Product) measures for the 4th Quarter in U.S. were delayed until February 28, 2019:
Real GDP increased 2.9 percent in 2018 (from the 2017 annual level to the 2018 annual level), compared with an increase of 2.2 percent in 2017 (table 1). The increase in real GDP in 2018 primarily reflected positive contributions from PCE, nonresidential fixed investment, exports, federal government spending, private inventory investment, and state and local government spending that were slightly offset by a small negative contribution from residential fixed investment. Imports, which are a subtraction in the calculation of GDP, increased (table 2). The acceleration in real GDP from 2017 to 2018 primarily reflected accelerations in nonresidential fixed investment, private inventory investment, federal government spending, exports, and PCE, and an upturn in state and local government spending that were partly offset by a downturn in residential investment.

 

Generally speaking, company earnings and operating cash flows are the primary drivers of valuations of a company as the two components measure the return on investment (for equity holders) and relative attractiveness when comparing similar companies.  The measure that grabs the most headlines is generally EPS (earnings per share) for a company. Although the EPS measure has many pitfalls for analyst and managers to adjust, the broad application to the companies in the S&P 500 Index is meaningful.  This past week, FactSet, reported that negative earnings revisions for forward quarterly earnings guidance on Q1 2019 earnings estimates were lowered by the most since Q1 2016 (when comparing the earnings revisions through the first two months of a quarter).  It is very common to see negative earnings revisions throughout a given quarter until actual results are provided.  These negative earnings revisions on the S&P 500 Index, more often than not, lead to earnings surprises (or beats) versus estimated earnings.  In our view, the combination of the “V” shaped recovery in asset prices and a continuation of forward downward earnings revisions is making way for another correction in asset prices.  That said, there also appears to be another seemingly complacent market environment given the lack of volatility in risk assets since late December 2018 (see VIX & S&P 500 chart below).

 

March should make for an interesting month with the UK coming up on their “Brexit” deadline for leaving the EU.  It still remains unclear whether the UK will be able to seek favorable trading terms with the EU and whether a “No Deal” Brexit will occur.  As surprising as the original vote to leave the EU was in 2016, global markets will likely start to hyper focus on potential outcomes.  That is not to say Brexit has not been a headline risk for the past three years, but now we come down to the wire on the terms of the deal.  Even with a hard Brexit, there will be some type of deal (so to speak).  It remains within the EU’s and UK’s interest to maintain mutual trading terms given the relative size of the UK and the remaining EU countries.  Our view is that regardless of the outcome, the UK will still remain the economic powerhouse of the current EU countries and a hard Brexit may give way reasonable risk/reward opportunities in the near term to allocate to the UK.   On the year UK equities, broadly speaking, have rallied in similar fashion to domestic and other developed and emerging market equities.  Investing on the belief of political outcomes can prove disappointing and we believe sitting on the sidelines for a better entry point may be more favorable when the actual outcome prices in.

DISCLOSURE (Click links for sources. If in print, sources available upon request). Calculations & Definitions available upon request. Measured by the Barclays US Aggregate Bond Index* - Morningstar. S&P 500 Total Return Index**. See “Model Disclosure” page for important disclosures and information. Views and opinions are of Alternative Capitalis, LLC and are not intended as investment advice or recommendation(s). Past performance is no guarantee of future results. Total Period Measured 12/31/2016 – 2/28/2019.  “Inception” refers to Inception to Date. Inception calculation assumes end of day market prices on 12/30/2016 for starting period values to calculate Inception to Date figures.  Performance presented net of highest advisory fee. The results do not represent actual trading and actual results may significantly differ from the theoretical results presented. Past performance is no guarantee of future results.

Record Share Buybacks in 2018

Stock repurchases or share “buybacks” is a way that companies can use excess cash to buy back their own shares, thereby reducing the amount of shares and increasing performance metrics like earnings per share (EPS) and return on assets.  Said differently, it is a natural way of increasing a company’s share price by reducing the supply of company shares outstanding.  There are a few reasons why companies may consider this.  An often referenced one is simply to help increase the share price as a company has run out of ideas to deploy their excess cash.  Another is the tax implications of just paying out a dividend (a taxable event) versus buying back shares and letting the investor of the shares decide if they want to make their own dividend by selling the % of shares that were bought back.  This can be favorable if the investor receives long-term capital gains treatment given an investor’s tax situation.  This chart above is really to capture the impact of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 that impacted corporate tax rates in 2018 and beyond.  Each of the first three quarters of 2018 were record setting in share buyback terms when compared to any other quarter in the S&P 500.  Capital expenditures (“CAPEX” - companies investment in their own businesses) were also high, but did not match the pace of money deployed through the first three quarters of 2018.  Share buyback programs can, in theory, have a downstream consumption impact to help spur more economic growth via the wealth creation effect.  Politically speaking this has historically and will likely continue to remain a hot button subject. Opponents to this theory argue that the wealth creation effect rewards the wealthy whose marginal propensity to consume diminishes as wealth rises relative to the less affluent (or non invested) investor. We look to highlight the dramatic increase in share buybacks relative to the last recession and bear market and any insights it may yield to future outcomes.  Share buybacks had a very large increase prior to the last recession as companies ran out of reasonable ways to invest capital back into their businesses.  The question now is if history will repeat itself, or is this just noise from a one time windfall of cash?

DISCLOSURE (Click links for sources. If in print, sources available upon request). Calculations & Definitions available upon request. See “Model Disclosure” page for important disclosures and information. Measured by the S&P 500 Price Return Index and Share Buyback data sourced from Standard & Poor’s.  Views and opinions are of Alternative Capitalis, LLC and are not intended as investment advice or recommendation(s). Past performance is no guarantee of future results. Total Period Measured 9/29/2006 – 2/28/2019. The results do not represent actual trading and actual results may significantly differ from the theoretical results presented. Past performance is no guarantee of future results.

Complacency Returning After V-Shaped Recovery When Measured by Volatility

The S&P 500 index is showing more signs of complacency as we move forward from the most recent correction in the fourth quarter of 2018.  Looking back historically in the mid year point of 2007, volatility (when measured by the VIX) gapped up into a downward trending market regime.  Fast forward to February of 2018, volatility gapped up again through December 2018.  As we move into 2019 and a very strong start into the year on the large cap equity index, complacency seems to be setting in.  Politically and policy wise the markets have received good news as we have started the year, but forward guidance at company levels has been deteriorating into the start of the year.  On the jobs front we have now seen two months in a row with in uptick in unemployment (a lagging indicator).  On March 8, 2019 we will have February’s unemployment report (and initial jobless claims – leading indicator, on March 7).  Only one other time in the past 71 years have we seen the unemployment rate move up three months in a row without a recession to follow.  Note that there’s actually been six total times when this occurred but they are omitted because they were less than a year before or after a recession.  In other words, if the February unemployment rate comes in at 4.1% or higher, history tells us that we have likely already begun, or are about to begin an economic downturn. Consensus unemployment rate is to stay or move lower from its current January 2019 4.0% rate.  A surprise to the upside could prove materially negative to equity markets broadly speaking. 

DISCLOSURE (Click links for sources. If in print, sources available upon request). Calculations & Definitions available upon request. Measured by the CBOE Volatility Index (VIX) and the S&P 500 Price Return Index (S&P 500 (PR)). See “Model Disclosure” page for important disclosures and information. Views and opinions are of Alternative Capitalis, LLC and are not intended as investment advice or recommendation(s). Past performance is no guarantee of future results. Total Period Measured 2/28/2004 – 2/28/2019. The results do not represent actual trading and actual results may significantly differ from the theoretical results presented. Past performance is no guarantee of future results.

Disclosure WARRANTIES & DISCLAIMERS

There are no warranties implied. Alternative Capitalis, LLC (“RIA Firm”) is a registered investment adviser located in Massachusetts. Alternative Capitalis, LLC may only transact business in those states in which it is registered, or qualifies for an exemption or exclusion from registration requirements. Alternative Capitalis, LLC’s presentation is limited to the dissemination of general information pertaining to its advisory services, together with access to additional investment-related information, publications, and links. Accordingly, the publication of Alternative Capitalis, LLC’s presentation should not be construed by any consumer and/or prospective client as Alternative Capitalis, LLC’s solicitation to effect, or attempt to effect transactions in securities, or the rendering of personalized investment advice for compensation, over the presentation. Any subsequent, direct communication by Alternative Capitalis, LLC with a prospective client shall be conducted by a representative that is either registered or qualifies for an exemption or exclusion from registration in the state where the prospective client resides. For information pertaining to the registration status of Alternative Capitalis, LLC, please contact the state securities regulators for those states in which Alternative Capitalis, LLC maintains a registration filing. A copy of Alternative Capitalis, LLC’s current written disclosure statement discussing Alternative Capitalis, LLC’s business operations, services, and fees is available at the SEC’s investment adviser public information website – www.adviserinfo.sec.gov or from Alternative Capitalis, LLC upon written request. Alternative Capitalis, LLC does not make any representations or warranties as to the accuracy, timeliness, suitability, completeness, or relevance of any information prepared by any unaffiliated third party, whether linked to Alternative Capitalis, LLC’s presentation or incorporated herein, and takes no responsibility therefor. All such information is provided solely for convenience purposes only and all users thereof should be guided accordingly. This presentation and information are provided for guidance and information purposes only. Investments involve risk and unless otherwise stated, are not guaranteed. Be sure to first consult with a qualified financial adviser and/or tax professional before implementing any strategy. This presentation and information are not intended to provide investment, tax, or legal advice.

Model Disclosure

Alternative Capitalis, LLC is a registered investment adviser. Information presented herein is for educational purposes only and does not intend to make an offer or solicitation for the sale or purchase of any specific securities, investments, or investment strategies. Investments involve risk and unless otherwise stated, are not guaranteed. Model Performance Disclosure: The performance shown represents only the results of Alternative Capitalis, LLC’s model portfolios for the relevant time period and do not represent the results of actual trading of investor assets.  Model portfolio performance is the result of the application of the Alternative Capitalis, LLC’s proprietary investment process.  Model performance has inherent limitations. The results are theoretical and do not reflect any investor’s actual experience with owning, trading or managing an actual investment account. Thus, the performance shown does not reflect the impact that material economic and market factors had or might have had on decision making if actual investor money had been managed. Model portfolio performance is shown net of the model advisory fee of 1.25%, the highest fee charged by Alternative Capitalis, LLC.  This reflects a change from Alternative Capitalis, LLC highest fee charged to a client(s) account from 1% to 1.25% annually.  April 1, 2018 model performance to most recent date presented adjusts for the higher 1.25% annual fee. Model portfolio performance is shown net of the sample trading costs based on our Custodian’s, TD Ameritrade Institutional, trading costs. Performance does not reflect the deduction of other fees or expenses, including but not limited to brokerage fees, custodial fees and fees and expenses charged by mutual funds and other investment companies. Performance results shown include the reinvestment of dividends and interest on cash balances where applicable. The data used to calculate the model performance was obtained from sources deemed reliable and then organized and presented by Alternative Capitalis, LLC.   The performance calculations have not been audited by any third party. Actual performance of client portfolios may differ materially due to the timing related to additional client deposits or withdrawals and the actual deployment and investment of a client portfolio, the reinvestment of dividends, the length of time various positions are held, the client’s objectives and restrictions, and fees and expenses incurred by any specific individual portfolio. The performance calculations are based on a hypothetical investment of $100,000 for both the model and benchmarks presented. On July 23, 2018, we corrected previously reported month end performance reports to account for transactions costs (trading fees) related to rebalancing model portfolios.  The month end reports effected ranged from 2-28-2018 to 5-31-2018.  Prior reports accounted for transaction costs related to trading fees.  The four reports have been corrected and updated on Alternative Capitalis, LLC website (www.altcapitalis.com).  2-28-2018 had the largest variance in incorrect performance reported with an average of 9 BPs (“basis points”) (0.09% or 9/100 of 1.00%) of overstated positive performance in the models and ranged as high as 15 BPs to as low as 2 BPs.  A comparison chart of the variances in reported performance can be provided upon request.   Benchmarks: The performance results shown are compared to the performance of the performance of a blended ETF (exchange-traded-fund) portfolio comprised of the following two ETF’s symbols, SPY & AGG, are described below.  The benchmarks used are investable ETFs and their performance calculation is inclusive of the highest fee charged to a client(s) account, 1.25% annually.  This will reduce the total return of the investable benchmark by the annualized rate of 1.25%.  The ETF symbol SPY (SPDR® S&P 500® ETF Trust) which seeks to provide investment results that, before expenses, correspond generally to the price and yield performance of the S&P 500® Index (the "Index").  Visit https://us.spdrs.com/en/etf/spdr-sp-500-etf-SPY for more information about the ETF. The S&P 500® Index results do not reflect fees and expenses and you typically cannot invest in an index.  The ETF symbol AGG (iShares Core U.S. Aggregate Bond ETF). The iShares Core U.S. Aggregate Bond ETF seeks to track the investment results of an index composed of the total U.S. investment-grade bond market. (the "Index"). Visit https://www.ishares.com/us/products/239458/ishares-core-total-us-bond-market-etf for more information about the ETF. The index composed of the total U.S. investment-grade bond market results do not reflect fees and expenses and you typically cannot invest in an index.  The benchmark is blended representing a weighting of a percentage (%) to SPY and percentage (%) to AGG based on the respective model weights below.  Unless otherwise indicated, the benchmarks are not rebalanced to maintain their original weighting over the period measured.  Instead, they are comprised of the starting allocation and will shift given the prevailing market environment over the period measured.  Return Comparison: To benchmark the results, the ETF (exchange-traded-fund) symbol SPY (SPDR® S&P 500® ETF Trust) which seeks to provide investment results that, before expenses, correspond generally to the price and yield performance of the S&P 500® Index (the "Index").  The S&P 500 was chosen as it is generally well recognized as an indicator or representation of the stock market in general and includes a cross section of equity holdings. In addition, the ETF symbol AGG was chosen as a benchmark. The iShares Core U.S. Aggregate Bond ETF seeks to track the investment results of an index composed of the total U.S. investment-grade bond market.  The total U.S. investment-grade bond market was chosen as it is generally well recognized as an indicator or representation of the bond market in general and includes a cross section of debt holdings. For each respective model benchmark the performance measurement weightings are as follows to SPY / AGG %: 20/80, 30/70, 40/60, 50/50, 60/40, 70/30, 80/20, 90/10 % respectively for Ultra Conservative, Conservative, Moderate, Balanced, Growth & Income, Growth, Aggressive, Ultra Aggressive. OPTIONS TRADING RISK DISCLOSURE: Options Trading – Both the purchase and writing (selling) of options contracts –involves a significant degree of risk not suitable for all investors.  Investors should carefully consider the inherent risks and financial obligations associated with options trading as further detailed in the Options Clearing Corporate booklet “Characteristics and Risks of Standardized Options.” 233 Harvard St, #307, Brookline, MA 02446 is Alternative Capitalis, LLC’s client facing address. All books, records, receipts, correspondence (mailing address) and day to day operations are located at 1565 West St, Wrentham, MA 02093.

Information presented herein is for educational purposes only and does not intend to make an offer or solicitation for the sale or purchase of any specific securities, investments, or investment strategies. Investments involve risk and unless otherwise stated, are not guaranteed. The results presented before 12/31/2016 for model performance assume that the weights initially held on that date were held at the unset of any performance presented before 12/31/2016.  This assumes results based on discretionary models that are not purely quantitative or rules based. Global Benchmarks: The performance results shown are compared to the performance of the performance of a blended ETF (exchange-traded-fund) portfolio comprised of the following three ETF’s symbols, VT, BNDX & BND, are described below.  The benchmarks used are investable ETFs and their performance calculation is inclusive of the highest fee charged to a client(s) account, 1.25% annually.  This will reduce the total return of the investable benchmark by the annualized rate of 1.25%.  Additionally, the ETF’s that lack the track record to cover the entirety of the period presented have been backfilled with index data that Alternative Capitalis, LLC deems appropriate as a proxy of the chosen ETF’s hypothetical track record.  Below is the summary of backfilled data and time period:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The ETF symbol BNDX (Vanguard Total International Bond ETF). The Vanguard Total International Bond ETF attempts to track the performance of the Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate ex-USD Float Adjusted RIC Capped Index (USD Hedged). Visit https://investor.vanguard.com/etf/profile/BNDX for more information about the ETF. The ETF symbol VT (Vanguard Total World Stock ETF) seeks to track the performance of the FTSE Global All Cap Index, which covers both well-established and still-developing markets.  Visit https://investor.vanguard.com/etf/profile/VT for more information about the ETF. The ETF symbol BND (Vanguard Total Bond Market ETF). The Vanguard Total Bond Market ETF attempts to track the performance of the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Float Adjusted Index and attempted to track the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Bond Index through December 31, 2009. Visit https://investor.vanguard.com/etf/profile/BND for more information about the ETF.  The benchmark is blended representing a weighting of a percentage (%) to BND, percentage (%) to VT and percentage (%) to BNDX based on the respective model weights below.  Unless otherwise indicated, the benchmarks are not rebalanced to maintain their original weighting over the period measured.  Instead, they are comprised of the starting allocation and will shift given the prevailing market environment over the period measured.  Return Comparison: To benchmark the results, the ETF symbol BNDX (Vanguard Total International Bond ETF) attempts to track the performance of the Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate ex-USD Float Adjusted RIC Capped Index (USD Hedged). The Vanguard Total International Bond ETF was chosen as it is generally well recognized as an indicator or representation of the global bond market, ex-U.S. bonds, and tracks an investment-grade, non-USD denominated bond index, hedged against currency fluctuations for U.S. investors.  The ETF symbol VT (Vanguard Total World Stock ETF) seeks to track the performance of the FTSE Global All Cap Index, which covers both well-established and still-developing markets. The Vanguard Total World Stock ETF was chosen as it is generally well recognized as an indicator or representation of the global stock market and tracks a market-cap-weighted index of global stocks covering approximately 98% of the domestic and emerging market capitalization. The ETF symbol BND (Vanguard Total Bond Market ETF) attempts to track the performance of the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Float Adjusted Index and attempted to track the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Bond Index through December 31, 2009. The Vanguard Total Bond Market ETF was chosen as it is generally well recognized as an indicator or representation of the U.S. Domestic bond market, and tracks a broad, market-value-weighted index of U.S. dollar-denominated, investment-grade, taxable, fixed-income securities with maturities of at least one year. For each respective model benchmark the performance measurement weightings are as follows to BND/VT/BNDX %: 66/20/14, 57.8/30/12.3, 49.5/40/10.5, 41.2/50/8.8, 33/60/7, 24.7/70/5.3, 16.5/80/3.5 and 8.2/90/1.8 % respectively for the Ultra Conservative, Conservative, Moderate, Balanced, Growth & Income, Growth, Aggressive and Ultra Aggressive Global Benchmarks. DRAWDOWN ASSUMPTIONS: Domestic Benchmark -36.90%, Global Benchmark -41.00%, and Growth & Income Model -18.00% (see “Third Party Disclosures” page).  Limitations of the assumptions include, but are not limited to, backfill index bias, time period bias and assume no changes to the model presented over the drawdown period.  An advisory fee of 1.25% is also included in the calculation for the model and benchmarks over the drawdown period.  Transaction fees for the model over the drawdown period are excluded as positions are assumed to be held constant.  The benchmark drawdowns use the as calculated drawdowns over the periods measured from 10/9/2007 to 3/9/2009 for the domestic benchmark and from 10/31/2007 to 3/9/2009 for the global benchmark.  The Growth & Income Model uses third party software to present a hypothetical drawdown in which calculations of the current holdings were not available during the drawdown period relative to the benchmark.  There is no guarantee as to the accuracy of the third party drawdown assumptions nor should one draw any conclusions as to the accuracy and likelihood of the data presented. The Growth & Income Model drawdown assumption is based on a third party report dated September 24, 2018 (This report is available upon request).

 
The results do not represent actual trading and actual results may significantly differ from the theoretical results presented.

Explanations & Disclosures Continued:

Third Party Disclosures

Hidden Levers


IMPORTANT: The projections generated by HiddenLevers regarding the likelihood of various investment outcomes are hypothetical in nature, do not reflect actual investment results, and are not guarantees of future results. Assumptions on rates of return and standard deviation used in this analysis are based on historical return data for each security and asset class. Past performance is no guarantee of future results. Results may vary with each use and over time. You cannot invest directly in a benchmark or index. Index results do not reflect fees, expenses, or sales charges incurred when making investments. Methodology Used to Generate this Report: Definitions: Beta - Beta measures the relationship between an investment and a major market index (the S&P 500 is used in this report). A beta of 1.0 means that a 1% rise in the S&P 500 could lead to a 1% rise in the investment, while a beta of -0.5 means that a 1% rise in the S&P 500 could lead to a 0.5% drop in the investment. The beta for an investment is determined by using regression analysis to measure the relationship between the returns of the investment and the returns of the S&P 500. HiddenLevers uses 10 years of data to measure the beta for an investment. For investments with less than 10 years of history, all available historical data is used. Cross Correlations - HiddenLevers measures the correlation between every pair of investments in the portfolio. The correlation results can vary between 1 and -1, where a correlation of 1 means that two investments move together perfectly over time, and a correlation of -1 means that two investments move in opposite directions over time. Expected Return - This is the 5-year total return of the portfolio based on the stress test scenarios selected for the report. The system takes the weighted average of the economic scenarios to calculate a one-year return, which is then compounded to determine the five-year return. Lever - HiddenLevers tracks different levers (economic indicators) like CPI, US GDP Growth, and oil prices, and uses movements in these levers to define economic scenarios. Lever Impact - The lever impacts section describes the impact of different economic levers on the portfolio as a whole. An S&P lever impact of 1.0, for example, means that a 1% rise in the S&P 500 is projected to lead to a 1% rise in the portfolio. HiddenLevers similarly measures the impact of a range of economic levers on the portfolio. Maximum Drawdown (MDD) - this is measured as the largest percentage drop in a position during the timeframe of measurement. Click the + sign on the Risk Measures box to see the timeframe of measurement for Max Drawdown in the top right hand corner of the box. Scenario - A scenario is a representation of a major macro-economic or geopolitical event which has the potential to impact investment returns. HiddenLevers models scenarios as a set of up-or-down movements in any of the economic indicators (levers) in the system. Scenario Impacts - Using HiddenLevers' stress testing model, an upside and downside impact are projected for the portfolio in each scenario. Most scenarios are modeled with multiple potential outcomes, with both positive, neutral, and negative outcomes considered. The best and worst projections are derived from running the different scenario outcomes against the portfolio in HiddenLevers model. The scenario-based stress testing model is discussed in detail in the Method section below. Sharpe Ratio - The Sharpe Ratio is the a measure for calculating risk-adjusted return, and this ratio has become the industry standard for such calculations. It was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe. The Sharpe ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. HiddenLevers calculates the Sharpe ratio by subtracting short term (1M) T-bill rates from the portfolio's annualized total return, and then dividing by the portfolio's volatility (annualized standard deviation). Stress Test Risk/Reward - The Stress Test Risk/Reward compares the portfolio's potential downside risk against the 5 year expected return of the portfolio. Downside Risk: This is the maximum downside calculated across all of the scenarios included in the report. 5 Year Expected Return: HiddenLevers first calculates the expected return for the portfolio by calculating the one-year weighted average expected return across all included scenarios. The one-year expected return is then compounded to obtain a 5 year return estimate. Historically, major downside events occur roughly twice a decade, making 5 years an appropriate timeframe for comparison of long term returns and downside scenario risk. Volatility - HiddenLevers measures volatility as the annualized standard deviation of an investment or portfolio, expressed in percentage terms. The standard deviation is calculated using weekly data points, and is then annualized by multiplying by the square-root of 52 (number of periods in one year). Method: This report describes one or more potential scenarios, and shows the HiddenLevers-model based performance for the portfolio in each scenario. The steps below are performed to generate the projections: Scenario -> Levers -> Assets (Stocks etc) -> Portfolio Return A scenario pushes levers up or down, which in turn push assets up or down, which in turn impact a portfolio's modeled return in the scenario. As defined above, a scenario is modeled as a set of movements in the levers. Regression analysis is used to determine the historical (prior 10 year) relationship between each lever and each asset in the portfolio. The model is then run 2500 times for each scenario/portfolio combination. In each iteration, the model projects the returns for each asset using the historical regression coefficients for each lever, and using the scenario assumptions on how each lever will change. The model varies the regression coefficients for each iteration using a normal distribution around their mean (similar to a Monte Carlo model's varying of expected returns across iterations), and aggregates the results of the 2500 iterations to find a mean portfolio return with a 95% confidence interval. The confidence interval is displayed on the report as "margin of error" for each scenario. Limitations and Assumptions: This report describes one or more potential scenarios that may or may not occur. Each scenario discussed in this report is defined by the economic assumptions listed in the Macro Impact section of each scenario page. HiddenLevers does not guarantee that any particular scenario will occur as modeled in this report. HiddenLevers uses historical analysis in the creation of this report, and past performance is not a guarantee of future results. The information contained in this report is not to be construed as advice and should not be confused as any sort of advice. Investors should consider this report as only a single factor in making their investment decision. Gxworks LLC, maker of software used to create this report, makes the following disclosures: Gxworks LLC's mission is to educate and provide useful macro risk analytical tools to help provide data to assist with the investment decision process. We rely on financial data, including stock prices, provided by third parties. The data is believed to be accurate, but HiddenLevers does not guarantee or warranty this data. This report is intended only as an informational tool for you and your investment advisor, and should not in any way be construed as investment advice by HiddenLevers. If you make investment decisions based on information you receive in connection with this report, you do so at your own risk and neither HiddenLevers nor its employees will be liable for any losses that you may incur. GxWorks LLC (dba HiddenLevers), its employees, officers or affiliates, in some instances, may have long or short positions or holdings in the securities or other related investments of companies mentioned herein. Users of this should conduct their own independent research and due diligence and consult with their investment advisor before making any investment decisions or recommendations.  Hidden Levers does not endorse Alternative Capitalis, LLC. Past Crashes: Financial Crisis 9/1/08 - 3/9/09 This scenario covers the timeframe from September 1, 2008 through March 9th, 2009, and measures the historical change of each lever over those dates. This scenario outcome reflects the economic movements between Sept. 1, 2008 and March 9th, 2009. For monthly and other less granular levers, the nearest time period is used. Timeframe: 6 Months. Please visit https://www.hiddenlevers.com/ for more information.